The term education means the process of transmitting knowledge. This activity occurs in various frameworks. While the primary goal of education is to transmit knowledge, it also involves the transmission of values, attitudes, and skills. The ultimate goal of education is to improve a person’s knowledge, understanding, growth, and caring. In the broadest sense, education is about creating the conditions for lifelong learning. Its definition includes many different processes that contribute to the formation of knowledge and skills.
Formal education is a systematic process through which students gain different degrees and certificates, recognized by the state. This process typically starts at preschool and continues through elementary, secondary, and university education. Students complete a curriculum set by the state or private institute, where they attend classes taught by licensed teachers and study various subjects. Once they complete their education, they take tests and exams to demonstrate mastery of the subject matter. In some countries, such as India, the government also requires certain levels of training and licensing.
What is non-formal education? The difference between the two is that non-formal education involves no official center and is self-managed. It is also structured in terms of learning objectives, time, and documents of support. The learners are aware of their learning process. In addition to this, non-formal learning involves unexpected benefits, skills, and knowledge. Although non-formal learning often lacks formal assessment, it can still be considered educational.
A major difference between formal and non-formal learning is that the former does not involve an official center and is often unstructured. However, the latter is structured in terms of learning objectives, timeframes and supporting documents. The participants are generally aware of the process and experience unexpected benefits, skills, knowledge. Non-formal learning may take on an increasingly formal form over time as the learners get more proficient. In some cases, students may also be coached by an expert to increase their knowledge.
Schooling and education are inextricably linked. Schooling refers to the formal training and instruction that young people receive in a school. Without schooling, children are denied their basic rights and risk the future. Schooling gives people an academic degree that enables them to further their education, enter the workforce, or qualify for a job. Without schooling, people cannot fulfill their potentials and may not live up to their full potential. In this way, education is fundamental to our well-being.
The concept of ‘cultural capital’ in education is not new. Facts and figures are important to students, but a good curriculum also requires structure and content. Cultural capital is the glue that holds a curriculum together. In fact, cultural capital is not merely an adjunct to knowledge, but a fundamental part of learning. The context and subject matter of learning determine the necessary ‘knowledge’ that students need in order to successfully complete a course.
As a key component of effective instruction, assessment plays a vital role. Early research on the individualization of learning, Benjamin Bloom, argued that classroom feedback should be reviewed to determine the effect of assessment on learning. Although many reviews detailed the detrimental effects of feedback, some evidence suggested that assessment could promote learning. Ultimately, we must understand the impact of assessment by examining not just feedback, but also the learner’s response to it, the context in which it is used, and other factors that influence learning.